New combat module is meant for upgrading different armored vehicles
The light-weight category combat vehicles (IFV, airborne assault vehicles, APC) are able to determine the combat potential of a country’s armed forces due to their application versatility. Infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3) and airborne assault vehicles (BMD-3, BMD-4) are the most common hardware of land forces and airborne troops.
Currently a huge fleet of such combat vehicles is in service both with the Russian army, as well as abroad. These vehicles have been produced for several decades and presently their weapon systems do not meet modern requirements. However, their life cycle is quite long and reaches 30–40 years.
Many countries are keep on upgrading the main fleet of their combat vehicles. In Russia, a BMP-2 mechanical module was selected as a basis for designing a uniform combat module weighing below 3 tons for upgrading Russian combat vehicles.
Russian infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2, being the main combat vehicle of multiple countries’ land forces, was adopted for service in 1980 and used to exceed most of its foreign counterparts in terms of combat capabilities. Nowadays BMP-2 still basically meets the modern requirements.
The analysis of current state and development tendencies of weapons and fire control systems shows that BMP-2 weapon system cannot meet modern requirements in a number of parameters.
The firepower of a combat vehicle is determined by its weapon system. Thus, the increase of combat efficiency may be achieved by weapon system modernisation. BMP-2 has a high weapon system upgrade potential. The challenge of increasing the firepower of existing BMPs providing their superiority over other modern vehicles has been successfully met by KBP Instrument Design Bureau.
The upgrade was implemented on a serially produced BMP-2 turret with 2A42 automatic cannon (without changing the mechanical module and turret internal layout). The design concept implies the following :
- mounting two “Kornet-E” ATGM launchers on the turret sides, each launcher equipped with independent electromechanical vertical drive and carrying two ready-to- fire missiles;
- replacement of standard BPK-2-42 sight with combined gunner’s sight equipped with independent LOS stabilisation system and incorporating optical, IR and laser rangefinding channels, as well as missile guidance channel;
- installation of onboard digital computer with sensors system;
- installation of TV-IR target autotracker;
- installation of 30 mm grenade launcher with independent electromechanical vertical laying drive and 300rds feed magazine;
- installation of commander’s panoramic sight with independent LOS stabilisation system and incorporating optical and laser range-finding channels;
- installation of high-precision digital weapon stabiliser.
The weight of add-on equipment installed does not exceed 500 kg, including around 260 kg of extra ammunition: 30 mm grenades and ATGM.
The specifications of upgraded BMP-2 with new B05Ya01 combat module are improved as a result of KBP offered upgrade package:
– due to introduction of day/night FCS, the system provides accurate firing with all types of weapons, including guided, at moving and stationary targets, round-the-clock engagement of all types of targets from stationary position, on the move and afloat at the range up to 4000 m with automatic cannon, up to 2100 m with automatic grenade launcher, up to 5500 m with 9M133-1 ATGM. Besides, 9M133M-2 ATGM with tandem shaped-charge warhead and 9M133FM ATGM with HE warhead and 9M133FM-3 ATGM with HE warhead and proximity fuse, recently designed by KBP, allow firing at range up to 8 km.
– “Kornet-E” ATGM penetration capability, increased up to 1100–1300 mm, allows reliable engagement of modern advanced tanks fitted with add-on ERA. Besides, HEF warhead of the missile is able to destroy concrete fortifications and strongpoints. Due to standoff range targets engagement capability the upgraded BMP-2 are sure to prevail in combat with enemy tanks and IFVs.
The improvements implemented in “Kornet” ATGM (9M133M-2,9M133FM-3) provide for considerable enhancement of its performance without increasing weight and dimensions. These improvements ensure:
– destruction of modern and advanced tanks taking into account their armour protection growth tendency;
– engagement of any armoured vehicle at stand-off range;
– engagement of low altitude assault and reconnaissance aircrafts (including drones);
- installation on two stabilised launchers of BMP-2 ICV of four ready-to-launch guided missiles significantly increase fire rate when firing ATGMs. It rules out the necessity to reload the guided missile launcher during the combat, which increases the survival potential of the crew and of the entire combat vehicle, since stopping of a CV for ATGM reloading during a combat makes it a perfect target;
- implementation of TV-IR-auto target tracker enables to increase the accuracy of target tracking 3–6 fold in comparison with manual tracking. The human is excluded from aiming circuit, the results of aiming become independent on psychophysical state of the gunner, which is dramatic in stressful battlefield environment. Accurate target tracking becomes a granted technical specification, which enable to decrease the requirements towards the gunner training level and reduces the training period of the gunners. Automatic target tracker adds the FCS a qualitatively new feature, putting to life the “fire-and-forget” principle when firing a guided missile. At the same time the missile cost is significantly lower than that of a missile with a seeker which fulfils the function of the auto-tracker;
- the possibility of KORNET ATGM launch in an elevated mode (above bore sighting line) almost excludes the possibility of detecting the missile by the enemy;
- laser guidance mode of the ATGM with orientation of the missile within the laser beam provides for high jamming-immunity against all types of active jamming, since the jammer cannot be behind the ICV and send the same encoded messages;
- to overcome systems of targets’ active protection and to provide for guaranteed engagement of crucial targets salvo launch of 2 ATGMs riding on one laser beam is provided;
- significant increase of automated gun and grenade launcher firing accuracy with all types of ammunition is provided due to the development of original firing algorithm, which most fully takes into consideration all the factors: range to the target (measured by laser rangefinder or input manually) speeds and movement directions of the CV and the target, wind velocity, air pressure and temperature, charge temperature, muzzle velocity deviation from normal value, target elevation, pitch and roll angles, angle of jump. During this automatic generation of firing settings is carried out due to the fact, that ballistic computer is included into the firing circuit.
Effective firing range of a 30-mm projectile increases from 1100–1400 m up to 1800–2000m.
- air defence firing effectiveness increases significantly: kill probability by automatic gun when firing against “helicopter” and “low-flying attacking aircraft”-type target increases dramatically and its value approaches that of specialised gun and missile air defence systems of closed ranges with much lesser expenditure of ammunition. Thus, the principle of ICV versatility is fulfilled by adding air defence capacities without additional expenditures;
- effective engaging of enemy’s personnel at ranges up to 2100m, including that behind the accidents of ground and in trenches due to the implementation of low ballistics armaments (AG-30M automatic grenade launcher) with new GPD-30 rounds;
- the opportunities of CV commander increase due to installation of night vision panoramic sight with technical view, implemented on ICVs for the first time. The commander has all-around field of view in horizon and in vertical plane the field of view is increased up to 60 degrees, maximal angular velocity of the bore sighting line increases from 6 to 20 deg/sec. This allows to increase the stream of targets detected by the CV by 2.5 times, increase TD accuracy for the gunner by 10 times and to fully backup his tasks as well as to carry out engagement of aerial targets in automatic mode. BMP-2 upgrade meets the requirements towards future infantry combat vehicle for the nearest 20–30 years, and upgraded BMP-3 ICV can be successfully used till year 2030–2040.
The upgrade features a systematic approach and leads not simply to enhancement of separate technical specifications of the system, but has enabled to create a vehicle with qualitatively new features, which can successfully compete with foreign counterparts on the weapon market. A modular design principle has been implemented in the combat compartment. The customer can choose the set of equipment on his own either full or partial.
B05Ya01 CM (combat module) is also meant for BMP-1 upgrade of (after the chassis is upgraded to up to the level of BMP-2), BMP-3, BMD-3 airborne combat vehicle, BTR-90 APC and has passed the trials on their chassis KBP mastered serial production of upgraded BMP-2 combat compartment.